From anti-lynching protests in the 1890s to the Black Lives Matter movement, African Americans have struggled to secure rights, freedom, and an end to violence and oppression throughout the “long twentieth century.” This course examines that history through an interdisciplinary investigation of African Americans’ multiple, competing, and often contentious struggles for rights and representation in the long 20th century. In this course, we will complicate the common misconception that emphasizes the 1950s and 1960s as the only period of African-American protest and activism and instead ask how African-American freedom struggles have evolved over the course of the past 125 years. Among the topics we will consider are the emergence of rights movements that range from pragmatic to radical; the tension between non‑violent and armed resistance; debates over African-American military service; efforts to address lynching, segregation, police violence, incarceration, and other issues; the place of black women in the freedom struggle and in second- and third-wave feminism; the global dimensions of black activism; and the role that popular culture including literature, film, and hip hop have played in presenting and debating these issues.