This course explores the history of Europe in one of its most challenging eras, the “long” 20th century. The journey begins at the fin de siècle, a time of rapid technological advance, exciting artistic innovation, and troubling political developments, and carries through to the present moment, where these issues still echo in surprising ways. As we investigate this tumultuous century, we will analyze a variety of themes, including rival theories of how societies ought to be governed, who ought to be included or excluded from the community, how individuals and groups ought to live, and what forms culture ought to take. We will encounter arguments for democracy, socialism, fascism, nationalism, internationalism, isolationism, and more. Recognizing that modern European history is global in its reach, we will also examine imperialism, decolonization, and their consequences. Through close reading and discussion of primary and secondary sources, we will investigate how the idea of Europe has evolved over the long 20th century and make sense of where Europe finds itself today.