This course takes a transnational approach to exploring the theme of revolutions in modern European history. We will focus on three moments of revolutionary upheaval in Western and Central Europe: the French Revolution and Napoleonic Era (1789-1815), the “Springtime of Nations” in 1848, and the wave of student activism in the late 1960s. Our inquiry will be guided by these overarching questions: What issues have inspired revolutions in modern Europe? How does a movement become a revolution? When, if ever, is a revolution justified? Whose voices do we hear and not hear? How do we assess a revolution’s impact? We will also compare our three revolutionary moments to each other and evaluate them in aggregate to see what they reveal about politics, society, and culture in Europe from the 18th century to the present. This class focuses on close reading and discussion of primary and secondary sources, with special emphasis on manifestoes, memoirs, and oral history.